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Essentially, then, in New Mexico the soldiers provided protection for settlers and travelers from Indian raiders. Troops stationed at Fort Union were engaged in such military operations during much of the history of the post. One consideration in the selection of the location for Fort Union in was its proximity to the main route of the Santa Fe Trail which in and after was sometimes referred to as the "Cimarron Route"the Bent's Fort Trail also known as the Raton Route and, much later, called the Mountain Route of the Santa Fe Trail[ 1 ] and the frontier settlements.

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Essentially, then, in New Mexico the soldiers provided protection for settlers and travelers from Indian raiders. Troops stationed at Fort Union were engaged in such military operations during much of the history of the post. One consideration in the selection of the location for Fort Union in was its proximity to the main route of the Santa Fe Trail which in and after was sometimes referred to as the "Cimarron Route"the Bent's Fort Trail also known as the Raton Route and, much later, called the Mountain Route of the Santa Fe Trail[ 1 ] and the frontier settlements.

The line of communication and supply with the eastern states was vital to the army and the developing economy of New Mexico Territory and, of all the military posts established in the Southwest, Fort Union was the one most responsible for protecting the mails, government supply trains, and merchant caravans traversing the plains. Special escorts were provided for government officials traveling to and from New Mexico Territory.

Troops from Fort Union were sent with military expeditions throughout the region, and they were called upon especially when Indian troubles threatened in the area close to the post. Only military personnel understood that routine garrison duties, construction and maintenance efforts, procurement and distribution of supplies, dietary provisions and health care, all those details which took most of the soldiers' time and about which the general public understood little, were indispensable prerequisites for military operations to occur.

Field service required little time of any particular soldier, in comparison with other responsibilities, but it was the ultimate purpose of his presence in the Southwest and at Fort Union.

Southwestern Defense System before the Civil War. Source: Robert M. Utley, Fort Union National Monument, Occasionally the military was called upon to help enforce civil law and order in the territory. Whatever was required to keep the peace the army was expected to do. The soldiers ewcort served at Fort Union, like soldiers everywhere, were usually evaluated in the short-term by how effectively they made war, but in the long-term it was even more important how escorrt they kept the peace.

It was relatively easy to determine success or failure in warfare, but it was virtually ndw to determine the potency of the army in esocrt conflicts. The military, an agency of the Anglo-American penetration of New Mexico, was only one of several parties in the complex and fragile structure of ethnic intercourse in the region. Indian-white relations were difficult on every American frontier during the nineteenth century but especially so in the Southwest because of two and a half centuries of Hispanic Indian associations prior to annexation of the region by the United States.

Although Hispanics and Indians had frequently destroyed life and property in their conflicts, they had developed a system of mutual survival in a harsh environment. The infusion of Anglos disrupted those patterns, and the Indians eventually found the survival of themselves and their cultures threatened.

Diseases to which Indians had little if any resistance decimated their s, while Anglo settlers wanted to obtain title to the land. Indians and Hispanics felt the heavy hand of Anglo domination, the "Americanization" of their societies. It was difficult, perhaps impossible, for most people to transcend their cultural heritage and values, resulting in the tragedy of what ethnohistorian Calvin Martin called "mutual incomprehension.

Anglo-American thinking was dominated by ideas of ethnocentric superiority, private property in land, a market economy, individual opportunity, democracy, Protestant Christianity, and especially the idea of progress usually conceived as economic development. Indians stood in the way of progress and, by Anglo standards, they were also in need of it.

Indian culture was considered by Anglos to be substandard or deficient in civilization, but that could be improved if not cured by adapting Anglo institutions and values, particularly the English language, Christianity, private property in land, and anything else that would cause them to cease being Indians and be more like Anglos. The non-Pueblo Indians were considered to be the major obstacle to the Anglo exploitation and development of New Mexico.

The complexities of the problem were expressed by literary scholar Richard Slotkin: "The Indian perceived and alternately envied and feared the sophistication of the white man's religion, customs, and technology, which seemed at times a threat and at times the logical development of the principles of his own society and religion. Each culture viewed the other with mixed feelings of attraction and repulsion, sympathy and antipathy. Some Indian leaders feared resistance would lead only to destruction of their culture and hoped to survive and preserve some of their traditions by accommodating to Anglo desires.

Over time acculturation resulted as all three cultures influenced the others, including changes in values, attitudes, institutions, and material culture. The most obvious and far-reaching changes were experienced by Indians who eventually lost much of their traditional culture or preserved it subrosa while appearing to become more like Anglos.

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Indians became dependent on trade with whites, but some commodities supplied, such as guns and alcohol, contributed to the difficulty of keeping the peace. Fewer changes affected the Hispanics, but many of them also lost their land and jndian some Indian and Anglo characteristics. The Anglo culture experienced the least change as it became dominant during the last half of the nineteenth century but was also influenced by the other cultures.

The Indian policies of the United States were not constant because of changes from one presidential administration to another, the willingness or unwillingness of Congress to approve treaties and pass appropriations bills, [ 7 ] and the division of authority over Indian relations between the War Department and the Department of the Interior. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was established esocrt a part of the War Department in but was transferred to the newly-organized Department of the Interior in The Bureau of Indian Affairs was primarily responsible for obtaining land title from Indians and administering the affairs of the Indians after they surrendered their lands.

In each territory there was a superintendent of Indian affairs, usually the territorial governor.

Indian agents were appointed to deal directly with specific tribes or bands of tribes and to administer Indian reservations when established. The army was responsible for maintaining the peace, protecting settlements from Indians, safeguarding Indians from illegal encroachments on their lands, punishing Indians who were hostile, bringing recalcitrant Indian leaders and bands to the negotiating table, and rounding up Indians who left the reservation.

The lines of authority between the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the army were not clearly drawn. The officials of the war and interior departments often failed to cooperate, leaving Indians confused and victims of conflicting demands and promises. Besides Bureau of Indian Affairs officials and the army, other parties influenced Indian-white relations, including d and und Indian traders Pueblo, Hispanic, and Anglohunters who entered traditional Indian hunting lands, missionaries of varying religious persuasions, merchants who benefited from unsettled conditions, settlers who lost or claimed to have lost property to Indian raiders, and politicians who saw Indian problems as issues to be exploited for election purposes.

By benefit of hindsight the outcome of Indian-white relations was virtually inevitable because of the tremendous disparities of population, resources, technology, and resistance to diseases, but the outcome of the so-called "Indian problem" in the Southwest was not decided until the s. Troops and supply trains from Fort Union were directly involved in the events which yielded that conclusion. During the s, despite the ing of many treaties by leaders of tribes in New Mexico which were, as noted, not approved by the Senate nor funded by Congressthe army was expected to keep the peace and punish offenders.

As historian Robert Utley explained, the history of Indian relations in New Mexico during the s is largely a military history. From the little forts. He arranged for better protection of the Santa Fe Trail and continued preparations for the campaign against the Navajos.

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On August 2,in the same order naming Fort Union, Sumner directed that "in order to afford protection to travel and commerce between the Missouri frontier and this territory, Major Carleton's Company K 1st Dragoons, will be kept in motion this summer and fall along the Cimarron route, between this place and the post below the crossing of the Arkansas river [Fort Atkinson], returning finally to this post.

Later, when the possibility of Indian attacks on the mail coaches threatened, the patrols were replaced with escorts which nidian the eastbound mails from Fort Union to the Arkansas River in Kansas Territory and the westbound coaches if connections were made from the Arkansas River to Fort Union. Sometimes the escort of approximately 20 soldiers was mounted and rode near the mail wagons or coaches; other times the escort rode in wagons which accompanied the mails.

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Only rarely were these armed patrols or escorts attacked by Indians. Beginning with Carleton's first patrol inmilitary commanders considered these efforts successful in protecting the Santa Fe Trail. Carleton and his command left Fort Union on August 3,and followed the Cimarron Route to Fort Atkinson on the Arkansas River, where a mail station had been established.

He was instructed to move slowly along the Santa Fe Trail, remain at Fort Atkinson for one week, and return at a leisurely dhico over the same route. He was to watch for Indians along the way, show "great kindness" to those who were peaceable, and promptly punish any who were considered hostile. After recuperating at Fort Union for approximately 10 days after making the first trip, the same troops were to make escor second patrol under the same directions.

Later, when escorts replaced patrols, the troops from Fort Union operated in conjunction with Fort Chuco until that post mew abandoned for the last time in October In this way, one of the ndw of the Fort Union garrison, protection for the Santa Fe Trail, was achieved. The Santa Fe Trail may have been clear of Indian raids in the summer ofbut much of the Territory of New Mexico was without adequate protection.

Sumner led a large force against the Navajos on August 17 and established Fort Defiance near their homeland on September 18, but members of that tribe slipped around those troops in the field and raided unprotected settlements near the Rio Grande Valley.

Calhoun, in response to citizen requests, asked Sumner to authorize the issue of military arms for a volunteer militia unit in the territory so the people could better protect themselves from destruction at the hands of Indians. After esst delay, Sumner authorized Captain Induan to issue 75 flintlock muskets, with ammunition and necessary accouterments, to the governor for the use of a militia unit to be led by Captain Preston Beck.

Greiner and Sumner were unable to cooperate either.

Colonel Sumner was satisfied that the new posts he had established closer to the Indians' homelands were having a "favourable influence" on relations between citizens and Indians. In late January he declared that the Jicarilla Apaches and the Utes "have been perfectly quiet" because of the presence of Fort Union. When Fort Massachusetts was established some 80 miles north of Taos in the heart of Ute country the following spring, he believed that the presence of troops would ensure "their permanent submission.

Fort union nm: fort union and the frontier army in the southwest (chapter 3)

The corn purchased there was still on the ear, and the soldiers spent much of their time for a few days shelling the corn by hand to make it easier to transport. As they marched to the Bosque Redondo, they cached some of the corn to provide forage for their horses on the return trip. Carleton reported there was little grass along the way. On the return march, the troops found that one place where they had cached corn had been found by "Mexican" hunters who had taken the entire amount.

Carleton was impressed with the region, especially the Bosque Redondo. He described at length the lay of the land along the Pecos River, the rich bottom lands at and below the Bosque Redondo with potential for successful agriculture, an abundance of trees, grass, sunflowers, wild grapes, and large flocks of wild turkeys.

Carleton saw it as an ideal location for a military post, especially for a cavalry garrison. The presence of troops in that area, eqst predicted, would be quickly followed by "Mexican" settlers who would develop the potential of the land. He reported that three men had deserted and one, Private Patrick O'Brien, had died. Sumner directed Captain Horace Brooks, Second Artillery, commanding Fort Marcy at Santa Fe, to exst over the requested weapons, idian, cap and ball cartridges, and flints to the governor to be used by citizens at San Antonio led by Estanislas Montoya.

Calhoun asked Brooks to deliver the items to San Antonio. Brooks was unable to fulfill the order because he did not have the muskets at Santa Fe, and he informed Calhoun that he did not have available transportation to deliver the weapons if he had them.

Calhoun, so ill that he was unable to fulfill his duties, appealed to Sumner, who ordered Brooks to obtain the necessary arms and ammunition from Captain Shoemaker at dhico ordnance depot at Fort Union. They were to remain at the destination for a few days to rest and "recruit" the horses, then march back to Fort Union. Carleton assumed nrw of Fort Union on April 22,and his company was present for duty there until August 3. In August Carleton and his company of dragoons patrolled the trail as far as Fort Atkinson and escorted the new territorial governor from that point back to Fort Union.

Cunningham, paymaster, and Major and Mrs. Philip R. Thompson as far as Fort Atkinson. It was occupied until June 24,when the garrison was moved to a nearby site and Fort Garland was established. The Kiowas had, according to two Jicarillas met by soldiers at Ocate, recently killed three or four Jicarillas. The provision of military escorts by troops at Fort Union for departing Governor Calhoun and the coming of Governor William Carr Lane inalso part of military operations, were covered in the chapter.

Greiner declared at the end of June"Not a single depredation has been committed by any of the Indians in New Mexico for three months.

The 'oldest inhabitant' cannot recollect the time when this could have been said with truth before. Governor Lane, new territorial governor and superintendent of Indian affairs, became a strong advocate of peace. Perhaps persuaded by Greiner, Lane concluded that it indina more economical to feed Indians than to fight them. He proceeded, without approval of higher authority, to negotiate treaties with several New Mexican tribes, including the Jicarilla Apaches.

He promised to feed the Indians for five years and give additional aid if they would stop raiding, settle in a specified location, and take up agriculture. When the Senate rejected the treaties and Congress refused to fund the expenses incurred, the distribution of rations had to be stopped and the Indians felt betrayed.

All crops planted by the Indians in failed. They began to raid in order to survive and in retaliation for the broken promises.