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This study specifically examined the experiences of Filipina women who have utilized an international dating agency or other venues to meet their husbands. Phenomenological analysis was conducted on the experiences of seven Filipina correspondence or Internet brides. Forty-four were determined and collapsed into eight broad themes: connection with the Filipino culture while acculturating to U.
The mail-order bride industry has been in existence since the mids, though its original intent of introducing men to women from the same ethnic group for the purpose of marriage has changed Perez, Various literatures found that although the current mail-order bride system was superficially similar to the traditional picture bride system practiced at the turn of the 20 th century, the modern industry relied more on stereotypes and international economic inequalities Sims, ; Perez, The industry prospered in the United States during the s, in which finding women from countries such as the Philippines satisfied the needs of white men who preferred women with a more traditional outlook on gender roles Perez, There were an estimatedtoFilipina women who left the Philippines as mail order brides Sims, ; Perez, ; Maher, ; Philippine Women Centre of B.
C, Although the decision to participate in the mail order bride industry varied, the tumultuous economy of the Philippines was a contributing factor in becoming a mail-order bride. Due to its derogatory nature, many women involved in the process preferred the term correspondence wife or correspondence bride Zug, ; Julag-ay, The term mail-order bride is widely used by the media and in governmental documents.
Filipina housewives sexual encounters, a research study by the Philippine Women Centre of B. The project revealed two things: A ificant of Filipino domestic workers married their male employers and such terms as penpals or migrants for marriage Cacas, ; Roces, The practice of electronically ordering a spouse from a catalog is not a new concept in the United States Zug, ; Vergara, An estimated The majority of the men involved came from the United States, and the rest came from Australia and Europe.
Scholes reported that the U. Census Bureau data indicated about 4, to 6, women immigrated through international correspondence services per year. There were over matchmaking Internet organizations operating within the United Sates, and the was continually rising Dovlatov, Many Filipina women participated in various international matchmaking sites e.
A qualitative study of filipina immigrants’ stress, distress and coping: the impact of their multiple, transnational roles as women
A study by Minervini and McAndrew found minimal cross-cultural variability in the preferences for potential mates between the Filipina housewives sexual encounters from the three countries. Although U. In addition, the lack of awareness of U. The Committee on Foreign Relations found trends of abuse within correspondence or Internet marriages and the connections made through eyewitnesses between the matchmaking industries, human trafficking, and organized crime.
To maintain harmony within the family structure, a Filipino could not deviate from the cultural values mentioned. If a member deviated more than the family allowed, the individual may be shunned from family activities, creating tension in the family, not to mention distress for the individual. In addition, within each family was a distinct authority figure who maintained family cohesiveness and ensured that each individual did his or her part to benefit the family as a whole.
Bacho found that Filipina women carried the majority of the task in upholding the emotional well-being of the family. There has been an increase in the of married women ing the labor market, and some researchers found that women exerted both greater autonomy and household control when they contributed to the household income Alcantara, In cases where she clearly made more money than her husband, the latter remained the recognized household breadwinner. Filipina women, unlike women from other Asian countries, were able to attain the same, if not more, education than their male counterparts.
They were also politically active participants in the Philippines both as voters and political candidates. However, Filipina women were still expected to adhere to the traditional role as mothers and wives set by society. Roces found that Filipina women expressed ambivalence with the issue of empowerment and the feminist perspectives versus the traditional Filipino values.
These opposing images of Filipina women were clearly depicted by two prominent figures in Filipino history, the Maria Clara and Gabriela Silang.
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The Maria Clara is a fictional character that illustrated the essence of innocence and beauty through passivity and subservience, an image that all Filipina women were supposed to ascribe to be Julag-ay,p. Gabriela Silang, a historical figure, is known for her courage against the Spanish army in the rebellions Romana-Cruz, Both Gabriela and her second husband, Diego, openly protested the abuses the alcalde mayoror ruler, did to the people in Ilocos and in other Philippine provinces.
She was the first Filipina woman to lead a rebellion against a formidable Spanish army, earning her the name Generalaor woman general. Asian and Asian American feminist scholars argued that discourse on women of Asian descent usually occurring within a framework reflected the experiences of Caucasian, middle-class women. The history of migration by Filipinos has brought about a different perspective on feminism Julag-ay, The experiences of migration have left many Filipina women to focus their energy mainly on their survival in an unfamiliar territory while, at the same time, trying to overcome the obstacles brought about by acculturation stressors.
Maintaining employment status is a major incentive for many of these women, even if it means cooperating with an oppressive system. Furthermore, Filipina women are often ostracized in their own communities, depriving them of social circles. Because of this, many Filipina correspondence or Internet brides may not feel a sense of connectedness or ability to relate to others Stiver, SP illustrated the importance of interpersonal relationships and how such relationships bounded him or her to the community or to the home country Revilla, As a caveat, the relational-cultural theory and SP were theories used to help better understand the behavior of Filipina correspondence or Internet brides from an emic point of view.
These theories were not used to conceptualize the of the study. After consultation with the participants and other literature, it was decided that the question would be as follows:. Research Question 1: What is your experience as a Filipina correspondence or Internet bride? Interest in the topic included the sociopolitical complexities of international matchmaking within the Filipino community in the Philippines and abroad.
The writer listed all the assumptions of the men and women involved in the international matchmaking industry prior to literature review and continued to add to and elaborate on these presuppositions as she became aware of them. Those who agreed to participate in the study included women of Filipino descent, who were currently or have been married to Caucasian men through a matchmaking organization or were introduced by a mutual friend. Exclusion criteria were women who were married for less than a year, born in the United States, did not speak English fluently, and who were not at least 18 years old on arrival to the United States.
The researcher obtained seven participants. A Filipina housewives sexual encounters sampling method was utilized. After the initial contact with the first participant, which was conducted in her home sans family members present, the writer asked for at least three other contacts to interview.
It was agreed that the first participant would first contact the women to briefly introduce the study and to let them know that they would be contacted via telephone or within a week.
One participant had her children remain upstairs as the interview was conducted in the downstairs living room. Some participants opted to conduct the interview via telephone, as they resided in a different state, while another decided to correspond with the researcher via and explained her discomfort talking over the phone with her husband within the vicinity. Much like the first interview, each woman was asked for names and contact information for at least three additional women willing to participate. Once contact has been established, many of the women asked the researcher what questions would be asked during the interview to prepare.
They were informed that there was only one question.
The length of the interview depended on how much the participant wanted to elaborate. Rapport was established either through commonalities e. However, the interview was conducted in English. When a participant chose to speak a different language as part of the rapport building, the researcher did not utilize that part of the interview in the data analysis.
Once the participant was situated and the audio recorder was set up, the interview began with the research question. The reduction phase included purging any unnecessary language e. The meaning units were placed on a Microsoft Excel spreheet to organize the themes that emerged in the analysis.
Each meaning units was labeled that expressed the essence of the statement s made by the participant. If it was determined that biases have contributed to the reconstruction, adjustments were made in categorical relationships. Findings in the study were organized into two sections: a bracketing of researcher biases throughout the data collecting and data analysis processes, and b obtaining descriptions from the themes that emerged in the data analysis.
It was anticipated that the study would provide evidence proving the degrading practices of the industry and the victimization of the women involved. In addition, there was an obligatory response to provide the participants a different view beyond their economic necessity to the Western feminist point of view.
The term mail-order bride conflicted with the purpose of the study, which is to dismiss the assumption of correspondence or Internet brides as economic opportunists. Although the women may be as educated as most of their peers, it was believed that they lack or chose to ignore the capacity to comprehend the complexities of the international sociopolitical arena, especially the relationship between the United States and the Philippines.
In addition, the men involved in the international dating industries are typically older, White males with a preference for women who observed stereotypical gender roles. The men may not necessarily portray the image of a stereotypical male e. The men who participated in the international dating organizations have difficulty socially asserting themselves, thus their preference for a less anxiety-provoking course to dating.
It was assumed that the women desired to be rescued from a life of poverty in the Philippines by their American husbands. Marriage in this case was not always one of love or convenience, but also of empowerment as the women chose to be correspondence or Internet brides for their own various, albeit economic, reasons. Therefore, communication between husband and wife would result in misunderstandings and frustration due to culture and language barriers.
In addition, the women were hoping to realize that American dream of owning a home and raising lighter skinned children.
The meaning units were then placed into 44 broad prior to placing them into sub, if necessary. The broad themes were later extracted based on commonalities of the and the meaning units within each of the. The meaning units within and sub were then collapsed into a statement to reflect the essence of the meaning units obtained.
Table 1 provides an example of this process analysis from meaning unit to category to theme.