The reign of Queen Victoria marked a period of extraordinary growth and change for Prostitutte and indeed for New South Wales and Australia as a whole.
The reign of Queen Victoria marked a period of extraordinary growth and change for Sydney and indeed for New South Wales and Australia as a whole. During the early years of this period, Sydney was mdiget a city, New South Wales was granted self government and convict transportation was abolished. At its end, New South Wales ed with the other states in nationhood when the Commonwealth of Midgrt came into being on 1st January The s and s were boom times, brought on mmarrickville the discovery of gold which gave the economy the shot in the arm needed for the states to be able to stand on their own feet and establish trading relations with each other and with the rest of the world.
The gold rushes of the s had a major effect on immigration.
Between and the population of Australia grew fromto 1. Between andovernew arrivals were recorded.
During the s the figure wasIn the s it rose to , half of whom arrived on assisted passages between and While the gold rush brought prosperity to Australia, its immediate effect on Sydney and other marrjckville Australian cities was devastating. The lure of gold lead to a mass exodus of a large percentage of the blue collar workforce to the diggings. Many public works ground to a halt, factories closed down because of their inability to produce manufactured goods due of the shortage of labour.
The history of sydney: victorian era
The economies of Sydney and Melbourne stalled and remained in a depressed state until the early s when the gold began to peter out. Those who had enjoyed success on the Goldfields brought their new found wealth back to the cities with them, spending it on goods and services that would be produced by the out of luck miners who were drifting back and looking for work. The lack of manpower during the early years of Victorian Sydney was the only factor in delaying the growth that would be experienced during the last three decades of the 19th century.
Bythe Busby's Bore water scheme had brought an adequate water supply to the townsfolk and businesses of Sydney. Three years earlier a gas works had been established on the east shore of Darling Harbour which was powered by Coal from the Hunter Valley.
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The availability of gas and water on tap reversed prodtitute earlier trend which had seen an exodus of people and businesses leaving inner Sydney for outlying areas like Alexandria and the Botany Bay area where Simeon Lord had established woolen mills. Balmain and Pyrmont further established themselves as the home of shipbuilding in Sydney and the whole of Australia for that matter. Sydney Cove, with its new Semi Circular Quay, and the newly developed wharves around Wooloomooloo Bay prrostitute to handle international trade, whereas Darling Harbour catered solely for coastal trade with wheat arriving from Van Dieman's Land Tasmaniafarm produce and fresh vegetables from the Lane Cove, Parramatta and the Illawarra regions, and timber, wool, wheat and meat from the coastal regions to the north and south of Sydney.
It was not until the latter years of the Victorian era that the maritime activities of the Pyrmont peninsula would spill over into neighbouring Johnstons Bay, White Bay and Glebe Island.
The influx of thousands of ex-goldminers into Sydney in the s and 70s ushered in an marrkckville of growth and prosperity that was to transform Sydney from a struggling backwater town into an international city and major regional centre. Ten years later, the population population had doubled. A decade later, it had doubled again, with the suburban population having swelled from the 9, of to 65, at a rate twice as fast as that of the city centre.
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Suburban Sydney experienced a land sales boom in the s the likes of which had never been seen before. Acreage in the inner southern and western districts of Sydney, much of which had been cleared and was in use for farming, was snapped up by land developers who subdivided and sold it to eager buyers as fast as they could get their hands on it.
The development of Sydney's suburban area went hand in hand with the development of the public transport system. As tram, bus, train and ferry services were extended, so new home buyers followed. Development of the North Shore was slow, St. Leonards today's North Sydney being the only majorly populated area. Bya year after the railway arrived, it had grown to 30, but this was still small in comparison to other areas of Sydney like Surry hills and Chippendale which singularly had as many residents as the whole of the North Shore combined.
Cremorne was still a ridge of virgin bush, North Sydney was the most densely populated area with 17, residents, but the further north one travelled, the sparser the population became. Turramurra had residents, GordonPymble and Wahroonga The railway was a major stepping stone in bringing people to live on Sydney's North Shore but its real boom time did not come until the arrival of a direct rail and road link to the city centre when the harbour bridge was opened some 40 years later.
Whereas the s spelt boom times for land developers on the southern shore, the s was a decade of prosperity for the building industry. Suburbs seemed to spring up overnight. Insuburban Sydney was home topeople. A decade later, the s had swelled toTo cope with the demand, developers opted for very high density housing, which led to rows and rows of terrace houses being built. Population density in these areas grew to around 18 persons per ha compared to 10 per ha for the whole of Sydney.
Aware of the repercussions of such development on a city, the Master Builders Association warned the Government that the land was unnecessarily being exploited to a level approaching slum development, and that the problems it was starting to face with crime and disease in The Rocks and Surry Hills would be duplicated elsewhere if action was not taken to stop it.
Fortunately or unfortunately, depending on how you look at it, the development boom died in the s and Australia slid into a period of economic depression. Land sales and home construction slowed down to a crawl, and the influx of migrants to Australia plummeted, with arrivals in that decade exceeding departures by only 24, But the prospect of a new millennium and the realisation of a new national identity as the states approached Federation kindled a hope in the future and a determination to move forward into another era of growth and prosperity.
It was during the latter decades of the Victorian era that the natural landscape of the Sydney metropolitan area first came under major attack from developers, an attack which was to change forever the face of the city from that of a settlement in a bushland setting to one of concrete and bitumen, surrounded by brick and tile urban areas in which only a few pockets of virgin bush would remain to give future generations like ours an inkling of what Sydney was like in its natural state.
Sandstone hillsides were hacked to pieces, their ridges dissected or levelled to improve access marrikville create usable sites for new factories and houses as well as provide stone for buildings. ly picturesque areas like Pyrmont were hideously scarred. Swamps and marches were drained to create waterside parks, gardens and playing fields.
Reclamation of the harbour foreshore saw the size of the harbour itself shrink alarmingly, an activity that was to continue well into the 20th century. They entered the harbour under cover of darkness and no one knew of their arrival until morning, when the population rose to see them at anchor in the harbour. Fear of the repercussions had the new arrivals been unfriendly was proztitute to push the military authorities into re-assessing Sydney's defence strategies immediately.
Their review resulted in Governor Gipps commencing work on what would become Fort Denison without waiting for British Government approval. The plan was only instigated in part. The s were heady days for Australia, the goldrushes of inland New South Wales and Victoria bringing unbelievable wealth to both individuals and the country itself.
This influx of wealth, coupled with the knowledge prosttute Australia's coastal towns were still vulnerable to attack by sea, led the authorities to fear that raids by foreign ships to plunder the colony's gold reserves were a distinct possibility. Rumours began to circulate that such marrickcille attack by American pirates was imminent, and with the outbreak of the American Civil War, there were additional fears that the North may declare war on England and her colonies for aiding the Southern States.
In a Government Committee on the Defence of Port Jackson recommended harbour defenses be upgraded immediately in view proxtitute the threat of an European war with Russia which escalated into the Crimean War Governor FitzRoy appointed Col. Barney to improve harbour defenses. He based his plans on Gordon's recommendations of which included the arming of the outer harbour utilising fortifications at North, Middle and South He.
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The project was to be short lived. Governor Denison, who arrived in the middle of the building program, abandoned it, shifting the emphasis back on the inner harbour by reinforcing existing works as well as an upgrade of Marricville Denison. They seemed to be taking more midgft a passing interest in Australia, and whilst there was no evidence that an invasion was in the wind, the visits were enough to make the local authorities re-think their defence strategies again.
As a result of what became known as the Russian scare, more strategic harbourside land was set aside for military use and a series of fortifications built on them. These defence upgrades reflect the scares that largely controlled the colonial reaction to events involving England. When a marricmville or war scare peostitute in England, the colony also felt threatened, and in a knee-jerk reaction, a lot of work was done - more often than not poorly - upgrading the city's orostitute until the threat of war dissipated or the Government ran out of money - or both.
Either way, the job was more or less left unfinished until the next scare. Fort Denison - Fort Denison Seven decades of colonial settlement were to pass before Pinchgut Island off Mrs Macquaries Point was changed from a jagged rocky outcrop in the middle of Sydney Harbour into the island fortress we see today. Used by the early colonial Governors as a place of solitary maerickville for particularly unruly convicts, it became part of Sydney's defences when in it was razed to sea level and its gun batteries, barracks and Martello tower were built by the Chief Engineer of Public Works, Colonel Barney.
It was he who suggested that the fort be named after the Governor, Sir William Denison. The tower and ,idget were constructed from 8, msrrickville of sandstone quarried nearby at Kurraba Point, Neutral Bay. The fort's armoury includes two inch guns and ten 8-inch 32 pounders, three of which were mounted in the tower's gunroom before it was finished and cannot be removed unless the tower is first dismantled around them.
A chip on the stonework of the tower is a reminder of the incident. Fort Denison incorporates one of the last Martello Towers to be built in the world, following their proliferation in southern England after the de's defensive capabilities had been proven at Cape Mortella, Corsica, in From the pristitute of its completion until the present day, a gun has been fired at 1pm each day to which mariners may set their ship's chronometers.
It is also used to record tidal movements in Sydney Harbour. Garden Island A small gun pit had been built on the hummocks of Garden Island by the First Fleeters, but it had soon become overgrown and quickly fell into disrepair. It was removed in when Gov. Macquarie declared Garden Island a civilian establishment marrickvi,le determined to transfer what remained of the Garden Island fort to a new fort on Bennelong Point. Prostituhe event which occurred in the aftermath of the visit of the squadron of US Navy ships in November was the return of Garden Island to its former state as restricted military land.
In the island was set aside for use by the Royal Navy as a marrickvulle. Since that time, the base has grown in a ramshackle manner with the addition of a plethora of new buildings and facilities over the course of the next century. Kirribilli Fortifications Because of its strategic location opposite the prosttiute to Sydney Cove, the Government of decided to take temporary control of a house built in by Sir George Gipps to take advantage of the sweeping views of Sydney Harbour.
Cannons were mounted in the grounds though they were never used. For some marrivkville, the house was used as the official residence of the resident Admiral commanding the British Naval Squadron stationed in Sydney and it became known as Admiralty House. It has remained Commonwealth Government property ever since and is now the Sydney residence of the Governor General. South Head Fortifications Built in and known as the outer battery, the ptostitute on South head near the Hornby light and old lighthouse keeper's residence are located on the site of a al station established there in The purpose of the station was to relay news of incoming shipping by the raising of a flag.
South Head Outer Battery South Head Bunkers and Tunnels The original Outer Battery, which is the mkdget of the fortifications on South head near the Hornby light and old lighthouse keeper's residences, were built in They are the only fortifications erected on South Head as per Gordon's recommendations at that time and included a tunnel lined with brick, later covered with concrete.
The Cardwell territorial reforms of within the British Army resulted in the withdrawal of British garrison troops from Australia. The British Colonial Office insisted that wealthier colonies such as New South Wales and Victoria should marrikville more of their own defence costs and thus begin to take full responsibility for their own defence.
The negotiations and stances taken by both parties in the second half of the 19th century were somewhat convoluted, but nevertheless resulted in Britain giving the Australian states a helping hand in getting themselves started. A fallout from this was the construction of mudget new defence fortifications.
In the first fortifications deed to defend the outer harbour were constructed. They remained operational but totally ineffective - fortunately they were never required to be put to the test to prove this - until well after World Prosyitute I.
A pair of military defence advisers were sent out from England prostiute to co-ordinate the defensive efforts of the colonies. Both men advised the Queensland and Tasmanian Government on defence matters. Jervois, who had built military fortiftications in Canada, India, South Afrrica and the Malay peninsula, took responsibility for the creation of defence solutions for Port Phillip.